Why There Is No God

Reading Time: 6 minutes

I read a book this week titled Why There Is No God, by Armin Navabi, a former Muslim turned atheist.

Navabi explores 20 common arguments for the existence of God and offers counter evidences for each. He writes in his introduction, “As a believer, you may find that you disagree with much of what is said here, and that’s okay. Reading this book will allow you to see what many atheists believe and how some people may question the beliefs that you hold. If you plan to defend your faith in discussions, this book can help you understand the reasoning behind the lack of belief in your opponents. Knowing this will help you debate from a more informed position, and the atheists you talk to may appreciate that fact that you’ve taken time to understand and consider their arguments.”1

Navabi is correct. Too many Christians for too long, (myself included), did not and do not have answers to some of the tough questions atheists can ask. Many of the questions an atheist may ask Christians have never heard of before, especially those who are new to the faith, or have never been exposed to any apologetic material.

Imagine playing a game of chess and you knew the moves your opponent would make ahead of time. How much easier would it be to win the game if you were able to anticipate and prepare for their strategy. Exploring the answers and questions non-believers have concerning God, the Bible, and the historicity of Jesus is not only wise, but the Bible tells us to be ready to give answers for our faith. 1 Peter 3:15  According to Strong’s Concordance, ready is the Greek word ‘heteos‘ or fitness. Anyone who has played any sports know the importance of being fit and well prepared for a sport or match.

I understand that apologetics is not a game, and I don’t look at my conversations I have with non-believers as some kind of match where there are winners and losers. If you begin to study apologetics, you shouldn’t look at it as a contest, and this goes double for those who are competitive by nature. Rather, studying apologetics satisfies the 1Peter mandate in scripture, and can allow you intelligently express reasons for your faith. When an informed atheist or skeptic asks why you believe in God, Jesus, the resurrection, or trust the New Testament, replying, ‘because the Bible told me so’ will carry very little weight with them.

If you are  more liberal in your political views, and then discuss politics with those who are more conservative, you do so in an attempt to persuade them how our state or nation would be better off with left leaning policies and laws. Same can be said for those who are conservative in their views; they believe our country would be better off with more conservative philosophies and constructs.

Discussing your belief with a non-believer is no different, in the simple sense that you believe they will be better off having a Christian world view, not to make the world a better place, but rather for their inheritance of eternal life. Atheists, on the other hand, believe you and the world would be better off if the minds and lives of people were clear of the absurdity of religion. Religion, in their eyes, often does more harm than good.

Navabi’s first chapter discusses science and the complexity and order of life. Concerning design and complexity, Navabi referenced a Youtube video, and I also have quoted text from the Atheist Republic web site concerning the video.
“Back in the 1970s, an unexpected breakthrough was made by a mathematician named John Conway, here in Cambridge. He devised something called The Game of Life.
A simple simulation that shows how a complex thing like the mind, might come about from a basic set of rules. The simulation consists of a grid, a bit like a chessboard, extending infinitely in all directions.” 2

Key words here I find significant.
“He devised something called…” Would it be fair to replace the word devised with designed? I think so.

What is interesting is the example given to demonstrate how simple rules can create complex designs and patterns requires not only a simple set of rules, but a complex computer, monitor, keyboard, and a binary system, that all must work together to process the information input into the system, by a designer. Designed mathematical formulas that create complex designs argue for a designer, not against one.

“…might come about from a basic set of rules.” Where do you get the rules or forces that govern our universe?

Stephen Hawkins describes the four forces that act on our universe: Gravitational force, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force. Each of these have very unique characteristics. Gravity is the weakest of the four, but it can act over great distances and is always positive. The electromagnetic force is 1041 times stronger than gravity, but can be positive or negative. The weak nuclear force is radioactive, but it acts on some particles, and not at all on others. Finally the strong nuclear force holds the quarks together in protons and neutrons and holds the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom. 3

Likely that was more information than you wanted to know, but where do these forces come from? Why do they act the way they do? There is nothing inherent in these laws that make them necessary.

Navabi also asks the question, “If complexity requires a creator, who created God?” 4 If God had a creator, then we would just be pushing back the question of a ultimate, initial designer. If God had a creator, then who would have created that God? And who created that God? On into infinity, backwards in time.

We now know that time and space have not existed eternally. This is an important point to understand and be clear on.

In 1929, Edwin Hubble noticed a red shift in distant galaxies that he was observing from the Wilson Observatory. A red shift simply meant that galaxies were moving away from us. In fact, the further out the galaxies, the faster they were moving away. This discovery became known as the Big Bang theory. Simply put, if we move backward in time, the galaxies would move closer and closer together till they converged on a single point. It was so significant that Einstein himself came out a year later to make his own confirming observations.

So if space and time had a beginning, then the beginner must be outside space and time.
Atheists may insist that we will eventually find a natural cause for nature, but that does not make any sense. How can something be the cause of its own existence? If nature did not exist, how could nature be the cause of its own existence? It did not exist to cause anything. It must be something outside of nature, something unnatural, or supernatural. 5

William Paley, a Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher who lived in the late 1700’s, had a famous argument about finding a watch in a natural setting such as a beach or forest. Paley argued that we would know the watch was designed because of its complex nature. It would be foolish to assume nature, somehow, despite great odds, was responsible for the watch. Navabi also wrote concerning complexity, “If design were truly responsible for everything, there would be no fundamental difference between a stone and a watch because both would have been designed by an intelligent creator.” 6

I am not sure what is implied by fundamental, but I do believe, both the watch and the stone are designed. Granted the design of a stone, say a granite rock, at first glance seems very rudimentary. Maybe a comparison between a simple wooden go-kart, hammered, nailed, and screwed together by a 14 year old boy, and that of a $400,000 dragster would be on par of that of a stone and a watch.

Yet even a granite rock, formed below the surface from slowly cooling magma, has multiple compositions such as quartz, micas, orthoclase and plagioclase feldspar, and amphiboles. 7 Not to mention the complex molecular structure we can’t see with the naked eye, which includes the forces Steven Hawking mentioned above.

A personal God created the universe. This universe, and the world we inhabit, have obvious indicators of design. Kenneth Samples wrote, “…the world exhibits elegant order, detectable patterns, and dependable regularity. These teleological (purposeful) qualities are essential to the nature of science, for they make self-consistent scientific theories possible.” 8

Some Christians may struggle with responses to his arguments against God, but listening to, reading about, thinking about the claims of skeptics and atheists can increase ‘heteos’, your fitness, or readiness for the encounter. Understanding the beliefs and reasons atheists or skeptics have, not only strengthens your position, but increases your knowledge base for defending your faith. Navabi had this right, take the time to understand and consider the arguments on both sides, can only aid the discussions of opposing world views.

Why nature is mathematical is a mystery…The fact that there are rules at all is a kind of miracle. – Richard Feynman, theoretical physicist known for paving the way toward our understanding of quantum mechanics.

 

Sources:
1. Navabi, Armin. Why There Is No God. Atheist Republic, 2014. Print.
2. Ibid.
3. Hawking, Steven W. A Brief History of Time. New York: Bantam Books, 1988. Print.
4. Navabi, Armin. Why There Is No God. Atheist Republic, 2014. Print.
5. Turek, Frank. Stealing From God. Colorado Springs: Navpress, 2014. Print.
6. Navabi, Armin. Why There Is No God. Atheist Republic, 2014. Print.
7. King, Hobart. “Granite.” Geoscience News and Information. Geology.com, n.d. Web. 30 May 2015
8. Samples, Kenneth R. Without a Doubt. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2004. Print.

 

 

Creative Commons License
Why There Is No God by James Glazier is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://www.dev.christianapologetics.blog.

Why apologetics?

Reading Time: 6 minutes

Why would someone study apologetics? First off, do you even know what apologetics is? Well, it is not apologizing for your faith, your Christian faith. For years, as a Christian, I would on occasion hear the word apologetics and never really understood what it meant.

To me it was one of those ‘theology’ words like hermeneutics, (the branch of knowledge that deals with interpretation, especially of the Bible or literary texts), or eschatology, (study of the end of things, or end times).

Yes, I was a Christian, but those kinds of words, discussions that would use such language or verbiage, was beyond me, and I had no desire to learn or understand it.

Apologetics is the branch of Christianity that deals with the defense of the Christian faith. Christian Apologetics is something every true believer should be involved in, even if it is only a little. A verse known to most Christian apologists is 1 Peter 3:15. “But sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence,”

Apologetics is often the step-child in church circles. Rarely is it popular. Most would rather read or listen to sermons about grace, love, forgiveness, hear encouraging words, receive encouraging words, and enjoy the worship on a particular Sunday with their favorite worship leader.

The reasons someone attends church will vary as much as the colors of Fall. Some attend for a feel good message, some will attend for the worship, some for the teaching, some for the children’s ministries, and some for the fellowship. The list could go on, and hopefully someone attends church for a variety of the reasons listed above, but one thing you will probably never hear someone say is, “I attend church for the apologetics taught”. I get that. Apologetics takes time, effort, and investigation into reasons for our faith.

Last night driving back from my school’s 8th grade graduation ceremony, I noticed a van on the side of the highway with its hood up. Outside the van and off to the side were a couple of adults with several small children. I pulled over and asked if they needed any help. The dad explained he and his family were on their way to Pinecrest for a church retreat and their van had broken down. The tow truck was en route, but it could not carry them all.

I offered them a ride, and took the dad and the three youngest up the mountain to Pinecrest. We chatted on the way up and if I recall correctly, he said his church was called Horizon Christian Fellowship, a Nazarene church. He shared that both he and his wife were raised Catholic, but the church they had been attending had little or nothing to offer their children as far as children’s ministries, so they started attending their current church and loved it because of the children’s ministries.

I shared where I attended church, how long we lived in the area, and that I taught Jr. High. I also shared I blogged on apologetics, but he did not know what it was. I mentioned 1Peter 3:15 and shared that I wrote about, and looked at the various evidences that support the Christian world view. I could tell he had little interest as he began to tease his children about the scary woods that might have monsters and zombies. A short time later, I dropped them off at the retreat area at Pinecrest.

I remember attending a men’s retreat, and one of the speakers specifically mentioned apologetics, but brushed off its importance. In a nut shell, he said having reasons for your faith will not win anyone to the kingdom, and he dismissed the impact apologetics can have on those who ask questions about their faith. His focus was love, which obviously is a major player to Christianity. Thankfully, my pastor was attending and spoke up about the importance of apologetics to those attending, and how it has a place and a positive influence within the Christian world view.

A month ago, a young man, (not from my church), told me he asked his Bible study teacher about apologetics, his teacher replied, “You can’t argue anyone into believing.” This young man struggled with this because he enjoyed apologetics and reading up on the subject of defending his faith. On the flip side, he respected his group leader and felt maybe his own interest in apologetics might be a waste of time. I told him it was common to get some push back from the church and then asked him, “Why would any Christian not want to have reasons for their faith?”

In recent years, there have been several scientific discoveries that suggest a supernatural being is involved. David Noebel, who started Summit Ministries in 1962, (to help ground Christians in their faith), listed four in his book, Understanding The Times, “The Second Law of Thermodynamics (stating that the universe is running out of usable energy and cannot be infinitely old), the impossibility of spontaneous generation of life from non-life (verified by Pasteur over 150 years ago), genetic information theory (which postulates that specified complexity, that found in DNA, comes from a mind, never by chance), and the Anthropic Principle (that the universe as well as planet Earth are specifically ‘fined-tuned’ to accommodate life). 1

The above examples are just a few that point to a God who created all that we know and understand. Students who enter high school or college, that have been exposed to apologetics, fare much better in maintaining their faith than those who just attend church, play games at youth groups, and treat their faith as a social construct for interacting with approved peers by their parents. When confronted with secular views concerning creation, they have heard answers that can address what professors teach, and don’t have to take their word as the ‘gospel’ truth.

Apologetics does not stop there. Apologetics looks at the historical evidence for claims of the New Testament and the resurrection of Christ. David Limbaugh wrote in his book Jesus on Trial, “…there is an enormous amount of evidence that the Bible is historically reliable and that it was written by real men who were united in their commitment to truth. I believe that evidence shows, well beyond a reasonable doubt, that the Bible is the inspired Word of God, and that it teaches God entered this world in human form when Jesus Christ was born, that Christ lived a sinless life, that He was crucified, that He died, and that He was resurrected.” 2

The evidence is there, archeological findings, historical accounts outside the scriptures that confirm what the Bible says, and ancient manuscripts, (letters by the apostles), copied thousands of times that can be compared for accuracy. Finally, the dramatically changed lives of the apostles who were eye witnesses to the death, and resurrection, who had nothing to gain for professing the deity of Christ, except persecution and death.

I am thankful that the Lord put this fire, this passion, on my heart about three years ago to study apologetics. I have no doubt my children have gained significant strides in their faith due to my sharing and writing about apologetics, but I will not stop there. This summer my wife and I are sending three of our four children to Summit Ministries for the sole purpose of shoring up their foundation of Christianity.

Over the years in our own church, and in other Christian families we know, we have seen children become adults and walk away from their faith after attending high school or college. Some of these children were raised in the church, with devoted, Jesus loving parents who have been active in church, not just a Sunday Christian.

David Kinnaman wrote You Lost Me, exploring why young Christians are leaving the church. He pointed out that teens are one of the most religiously active groups in our culture which is followed by the twenty-somethings who are the least religiously active group. “Overall there is a 43 percent drop-off between the teen and early adult years in terms of church engagement.” 3 As a parent, those numbers should scare you.

I shared with a mother the other day the practice of inoculating our children to what the world has to offer, rather than isolating them. I remember when I was about 12 years of age I asked my dad if I could try a cigarette. He agreed, but said I had to finish it if I wanted to try it. I made it about a third of the way before I was turning green. That was the first and last time I ever smoked a cigarette. I experienced what the world had to offer in the presence of my parents.

Talk to your teens or young children about what skeptics or atheists say concerning their faith, so the first time they hear arguments against Christianity, it is not outside the home. If you don’t have answers, that is OK, someone will. There is a wealth of information and books that can help you learn about apologetics to further your faith, or the faith of your children.

Francis Collins, who was head of the Human Genome Project, a leading scientist in the study of DNA, and a professing Christian wrote in his book, The Language of God, “It is time to call a truce in the escalating war between science and spirit. The war was never really necessary. Like so many earthly wars, this one has been initiated and intensified by extremists on both sides, sounding alarms that predict imminent ruin unless the other side is vanquished. Science is not threatened by God; it is enhanced. God is most certainly not threatened by science: He made it all possible.” 4

 

Sources:
1. Noebel, David A. Understanding The Times. Manitou Springs: Summit Press, 2006. Print.
2. Limbaugh, David. Jesus On Trial. New Jersey: Regnery Publishing, 2014. Print.
3. Kinnaman, David. You Lost Me. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2011. Print.
4. Collins, Francis S. The Language of God. New York: Free Press, 2006. Print.

 

Creative Commons License
Why Apologetics by James Glazier is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://www.dev.christianapologetics.blog.

Horus vs. Jesus

Reading Time: 8 minutes

 On a recent morning at the gym I noticed a young woman with a sweatshirt. On the back, in bold letters, I saw ZEITGEIST. It is a movie I have heard of before, and knew it made quite a few claims against Christianity. I also knew it had quite a following on the Internet with various atheist and skeptic web sites, but beyond that I really did not know much about it. Consequently, I decided to watch the movie for myself and see what I could walk away with.

In just the first 15 minutes, I had material for multiple blog posts, and this will address claims made by Peter Joseph concerning the Egyptian god Horus and Jesus.

Below is a transcript taken from the beginning, (about 15 minutes in), of  ZEITGEIST: The Movie 2007 by Peter Joseph.
In it you will easily see the parallel Joseph claims about the Egyptian god Horus and the life of Christ. If you like, you can watch the 52 second clip I have cut from the movie. In a nut shell, Peter Joseph asserts Christianity is simply a copy cat religion, and that Jesus was never a real individual.

Born on Dec 25th of the Virgin Isis Meri.
His birth was accompanied by a star in the east.
Which in turn, three kings followed to locate and adore the new born savior.
At the age of 12 he was a prodigal child teacher.
At the age of 30 he was baptized by a figure known as Anup, and thus began his ministry.
Horus had 12 disciples he traveled about with performing miracles, such as healing the sick and walking on water.
Horus was known by many names such as the truth, the light, god’s anointed son, the good shepherd, the lamb of god, and many others.
After being betrayed by Typhon, Horus was crucified, buried for three days, and thus resurrected.1

That is quite a mouth full. Christians who may not have heard any of those claims might feel overwhelmed at the first encounter, or at the very least unprepared to respond. Even if half of them were true, it would make someone wonder if there is some truth to the claim Jesus never existed.

Born on Dec 25th of the Virgin Isis Meri.
Nowhere in the Bible does it give a birth date of December 25 for the birth of Jesus. This particular date likely comes from a 3rd century theologian in Rome named Hyppolytus. 2 About the closest we can get to a date comes from Matthew 2:1, at a time during King Herod. Since Scripture does not address the birth day of Jesus, claiming that Horus was born on the same day is irrelevant. Nor can I find any references to Horus being born on December 25th.

In the dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Horus the son of Isis, is the Falcon God, Lord of the sky, and a symbol of divine kingship.3 The earliest references to Horus on any hieroglyphs is 3,000 B.C. At first he was portrayed as a hawk, but later on and then most commonly as a human with a hawk head in anthropomorphic, (human and animal), form.

His parents were the gods Osiris and Isis. Osiris was betrayed by his brother Seth, who cut the body of Osiris into many pieces. His wife, Osiris, with help flew about and collected all the parts and, “While still a corpse, Osiris was reinvigorated through the magical abilities of Isis, so that she conceived a son and heir to the throne, Horus the Child.”4 Obviously the story, albeit strange, would not satisfy a virgin birth. Other accounts, and I should add there are hundreds of variations concerning Egyptian mythology, are more adult rated concerning the conception of Horus, but none of them would constitute a virgin birth.

There is no question Isis is portrayed as the mother of Horus, but nowhere in Egyptian mythology is Isis referred to as Mary or ‘Meri’. George Hart, an expert on Egyptian art and archeology, compiled a complete list of gods and goddesses and named twelve that begin with the letter ‘M’. Specifically: Maat, Mafdet, Mahaf, Mandulis, Mehen, Mehet-Weret, Meretseger, Meskhenet, Mihos, Min, Mnevis, Montu, and Mut. I will add Hart also details the role of Isis as the mother of the king, and nowhere is her name refered to as Meri.5

His birth was accompanied by a star in the east.
Which in turn, three kings followed to locate and adore the new born savior.
Nowhere in Egyptian mythology is there reference to a star in the east that would announce the birth of Horus. In fact, Isis wanted to keep his birth secret for fear that Seth, the god who killed her husband, would then kill Horus.

Geraldine Pinch, an Egyptologist at Oxford, who has spent a life time studying Egyptian Mythology wrote, “…Isis hid the infant Horus in the papyrus thickets of Akh-bit (Chemmis), an island among the marshes. This nest of Horus was guarded by divine beings such as a cow and scorpion goddesses. The young Horus grew up to become the Pillar of his Mother and the Avenger of his Father.”6 I found no references to stars announcing the birth of Horus, but multiple references alluding to the attempts of his mother to keep his birth a secret. Nor have I found any mention of kings in my search. The closest I could find is the above mention of the divine cow and scorpion goddesses, a stretch to call those the three kings.

At the age of 12 he was a prodigal child teacher.
At the age of 30 he was baptized by a figure known as Anup, and thus began his ministry.
Like Christ, there little mention of his childhood. All accounts I have referenced mention his birth and attempts by his mother, Isis, to keep him hidden. Accounts then skip to his encounters with Seth, (his uncle who slew his father). “The dead king was mourned by his two sisters, Isis (who was also his wife) and also Nephthys, and the crime was eventually avenged by his son, Horus. After a bitter struggle Horus succeeded in regaining his stolen inheritance from his usurping uncle, Seth.”7 George Hart, in his dictionary of Egyptian God’s and Goddesses, does not list any deity with the name of ‘Anup’. Even the extensive Wikipedia does not list an Egyptian god by the name of Anup – certainly not any god that baptized others.

Horus did not have any ministry, but he did have a mission which was to defeat his uncle Seth and claim the throne as King. “After a bitter struggle Horus succeeded in regaining his stolen inheritance from his usurping uncle, Seth. This myth appealed deeply to the Egyptians.”8

Horus had 12 disciples he traveled about with performing miracles such as healing the sick and walking on water.
Well, he is a god, so performing miracles should come as no surprise. What kind of god would Horus be if he did not perform any miracles?

I read some references to Isis healing with her milk and had used it once to heal Horus with one of his battles with Seth. Other accounts mention that the milk of Isis was used to heal the eyes of Horus, and though Horus was mentioned, he was not the one doing the healing. He certainly did not travel around healing the lame and sick. “The image of the wounded Horus became a standard feature of healing spells, which typically invoke the curative powers of the milk of Isis.”9

As for having 12 disciples, this idea may have come from the work of Gerald Massey, whose work is not recognized by most in the field of Egyptian mythology. His name will not be found in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Nor could I find him being referenced in any of the materials I checked out from the library. “Massey wrote, Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World, book 12, which points to a mural depicting ‘the twelve who reap the harvest.’ But Horus does not appear in the mural.”10 Massey wrote about and studied Ancient Egypt in the late 1800’s. He was a strange bird indeed, embracing Darwin’s new theory on evolution, but felt it was incomplete without including ‘spiritual evolution’.

One blog wrote about Horus having 12 disciples, “Additionally, some of have said the 12 signs of the zodiac are the “disciples” of Horus. Even if this were the case, they are just stars and not actual people who followed Horus, preached about him or recorded his life. This is another empty and false claim.11

Horus was known by many names such as the truth, the light, god’s anointed son, the good shepherd, the lamb of god, and many others.
One reference is, “Horus, Uniter of the Two Lands” which may have to do with the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt. Pinch wrote concerning another reference, “…child gods could be represented by a form of Horus known as Shed (the Savior). He appeared on stelae [tall sculpted stone shafts] of the late New Kingdom dressed as a prince who vanquished dangerous animals with his bow or curved sword.”12

Horus, and really all Egyptian gods, had numerous names that would represent their various positions of power and influence. With little effort, someone could research dozens of names for Horus and link them to some of the more common names of Christ. A few I came across are, Lord of the Sky, Horus the Child, Elder Horus, Horus of the Horizon, Horus the Harpooner, Horus the son of Isis, Horus the savior of his father, and Horus the King.

In the later periods of the Egyptian dynasties, most of the pharaohs considered themselves the human manifestation of the god Horus. Lionel Casson wrote in his study of Ancient Egypt, “The ancient Egyptians did not think of their deities as abstract and distant beings…It was easy for Egyptians to bring the deities into every phase of their lives; nothing happened anywhere that was not arranged by one god or another. Gods were often merged when political and philosophical fashions changed.”13

After being betrayed by Typhon, Horus was crucified, buried for three days, and thus resurrected.
I did not come across any reports that says Horus died on a cross, or by crucifixion. As the centuries passed, he eventually merged with the sun god Re. You will find many accounts where he dies each day the sun sets and is reborn when the sun rises. This is even mentioned in the movie Zeitgiest.

One of the more interesting finds was the source most used in the movie Zietgiest. It goes back to the author of a popular book written 15 years ago titled, The Christ Conspiracy by Achraya S. Her real name is Dorothy Murdoch.

“As we mentioned above, almost all of the sources cited by Zietgiest go back to Achraya S., author of The Christ Conspiracy. But who is she? First off, her name is Dorothy Murdoch. And in her own writings as Achraya, she cites ‘D.M. Murdoch’ as a source, which is citing herself. This should be a huge red flag to her credibility. She has been debunked and criticized by many serious historical scholars.”14

 

Skeptics sometimes portray Horus as something he isn’t in order to keep us from believing in Jesus as something He is. But the reliable Biblical record establishes the Deity of Jesus in a way no other ancient mythological text could ever hope to achieve. – J Warner Wallace

Everyone is entitled to his own opinion but not his own facts. – Daniel Moynihan

 

Sources:

1. Joseph, Peter. /Helle534. “ZEITGEIST: The Movie.” Online video clip. Youtube. 16, January 2013. Web. 8 May 2015.
2. “Was Jesus born on December 25?” Got Questions. gotquestions.org, n.d. Web. 10 May 2015.
3. Silverman, David P. Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Print.
4. Ibid.
5. Hart, George. A Dictionary Of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986. Print.
6. Pinch, Geraldine. Egyptian Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, Print.
7. Seele, Keith C. “Ancient Egypt.” Encyclopedia Americana. New York: Americana Corporation, 1976.
8. Pinch, Geraldine. Egyptian Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, Print.
9. Seele, Keith C. “Ancient Egypt.” Encyclopedia Americana. New York: Americana Corporation, 1976.
10. “Was Jesus a Copy of Horus, Mithras, Krishna, Dionysus and Other Pagan Gods?” Beginning and End. Beginningandend.com, 7 April 2012. Web. 11 May 2015
11. Ibid.
12. Pinch, Geraldine. Egyptian Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, Print.
13. Casson, Lionel. Ancient Egypt. New York: Time, 1965. Print.
14. Was Jesus a Copy of Horus, Mithras, Krishna, Dionysus and Other Pagan Gods?” Beginning and End. Beginningandend.com, 7 April 2012. Web. 11 May 2015

 

 

*Artwork by Rebecca Glazier

HJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creative Commons License
Horus vs Jesus by James Glazier is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://www.dev.christianapologetics.blog.

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