You can Trust the New Testament

You can Trust the New Testament

Reading Time: 7 minutes

One morning at church my pastor mentioned apologetics multiple times. To me, that topic acts as coffee in my system. He also mentioned some, what he called God questions. One of the questions was if we could trust the New Testament. I went home considering writing a post on the topic since I had not done one in a while.

Later that same day my daughter Beth shared a text with me that a friend of hers was questioning how accurate the bible can be if it was translated so many times, through so many different languages. Beth pointed out to her friend that it is just one language to English. For example, Greek to English or Hebrew to English. So it is not as if we have to translate it from Hebrew, to Greek, to Coptic, to Latin, to English.

Many equate Bible translations to the old ‘telephone’ game where one person at the start of a line whispers a statement which is then shared quietly with the next person in line and so forth down the line. By the time the message reaches the end of the line, it is confusing, convoluted, and nothing like the original message.

The New Testament authors not only support each other, but we have multiple sources outside of scripture that support the life, times, and teaching of Jesus.

Ignatius, (AD 35-117) was a student of John, who is the author of the Gospel of John, and history has preserved at least three letters written by Ignatius. Jim Wallace, in Cold-Case Christianity, reviewed some of Ignatius’ letters and listed the dozens of conclusions from those letters. Below I list only a few.
-Jesus was in the line of King David.
-He was, (and is), the Son of God.
-He was baptized by John the Baptist.
-He taught and had a ministry on earth.
-He spoke the words of God.
-He died on the cross.
-Jesus was resurrected.
-He had a physical resurrection body.((Wallace, James Warner. Cold-Case Christianity. Colorado Springs: David C Cook Publishing, 2013. Print.))

Polycarp, (AD 69-155) was also a student of John, and Polycarp became the bishop of Smyrna in what we now call Turkey. Polycarp wrote a letter to the church in Phiippi, and history has documented this, in which he talked about Paul and the other apostles he had met. The following conclusions can be made from Polycarp’s letters.
-Jesus was sinless.
-He taught the Sermon on the Mount.
-He suffered and died on a cross.
-His death on the cross saves us.
-We are saved by grace.
-Jesus was raised from the dead.
-Jesus is Lord.((Wallace, James Warner. Cold-Case Christianity. Colorado Springs: David C Cook Publishing, 2013. Print.))
As I did with Ignatius, I only listed a few.

Paul taught Clement (AD 80-140) of Rome, and Clement wrote a letter about Jesus, His ministry, and His followers. According to Jim Wallace, “Clement quoted or alluded to seven New Testament books (Mark, Matthew or John, Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, and Philippians) as he penned his work.” From his work, which agrees with Ignatius and Polycarp, you can conclude the following.
-The prophets predicted the life and ministry of Jesus.
-Jesus provided His disciples with important instruction.
-He taught principles as described by Mark and Luke.
-He was humble and unassuming.
-He suffered and died for our salvation.
-He was resurrected from the dead.
-He is alive and reigning with God.1

All of the above men had first-hand eyewitness testimony to the lives and teaching of the New Testament authors, all within the first century, not hundreds of years later as some may claim. History has recorded their correspondence, and this recorded communication confirms the writings and eyewitness testimony of the authors and Jesus.

According to Norman Geisler and Frank Turek, in their book I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist, we have nearly 5,700 handwritten Greek manuscripts of the New Testament and more than 9000 in other languages such as Latin and Arabic. Of these practically 15,000 documents (some are complete accounts while others are partial books, pages, or fragments), the message of the New Testament is clear, and we have more copies than any other ancient document.((Geisler, Norman. Turek, Frank. I Don’t Have Enough Faith To Be An Atheist, Crossway, 2004. Print.))

In history, the closer the copy was penned from the original, the better. In other words, historians expect the copies to be more accurate if they were written within a few years of the original vs. hundreds of years later. Aside from the letters in the New Testament, the earliest surviving copies of original historical documents are poems and stories from the Greek author Homer, with a 500-year gap. All of the New Testament was written within a few decades of the events they recorded.

Historians also look at the number of copies a document may have. The more copies, the better. If you look at the number of copies that support ancient documents, again, it is Homer who has the most with 643 copies compared to nearly 15,000 of the New Testament.((Geisler, Norman. Turek, Frank. I Don’t Have Enough Faith To Be An Atheist, Crossway, 2004. Print.))

Other researchers have put the total over 25,000. In his book Jesus On Trial, David Limbaugh wrote, “The evidence, however, is changing all the time based on new discoveries. Geisler recounts that when he began writing on this topic in the sixties, there were about 5,000 Greek New Testament manuscripts…and now there are closer to 5,800. The number of New Testament translations into languages of nearby countries – Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic, Latin, Coptic, and others – totals about 19,300.”((Limbaugh, David. Jesus On Trial. Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2014. Print.)) Add that to the Greek copies, and then we have some 25,000 New Testament manuscripts.

Historical documentation is not limited to believers. Anyone who is familiar with biblical history has heard of Flavius Josephus (ca. 37- ca. 100). He was a historian for the Roman Emperor Domitian and wrote, “At this time [the time of Pilate] there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good and [he] was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. But those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion, and that he was alive, according he was perhaps the Messiah, concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.”((Josephus, Flavius. The Antiquities of the Jews. Trans. William Whiston. Blacksburg: Unabridged Books, 2011. Print.)) This is coming from a Jew who became a Roman and had nothing to gain from promoting Jesus and His life.

Pliny the Younger was a Roman senator and lawyer in Rome. He was a prolific letter writer, and we have copies of most of his writings. In one of his letters, he asked for advice on dealing with Christians who refused to deny Christ. He wrote, “They had met regularly before dawn on a determined day, and sung antiphonally a hymn to Christ as if to a god. They also took an oath not for any crime, but to keep from theft, robbery and adultery, not to break any promise, and not to withhold a deposit when recliamed.”((Van Voorst, Robert, Jesus Outside the New Testament, Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2000. Print.))

I mention the Pliny example (one of many outside the New Testament) to point out the durability of eyewitness testimony decades after Jesus’ death and resurrection. The Romans considered Christianity nothing more than a cult, yet it was growing and spreading all over the Mediterranean and into Rome despite dreadful persecution. Pliny the Younger would give Christians three chances to deny Christ, yet time and time again they would refuse and he would have them taken away to be executed.

Finally, in the first 150 years after the birth of Christ, if we include Josephus, we have ten non-Christian writers who mention Jesus in their works. Looking at what the non-Christian sources say about Jesus, we can piece together the following list:

1. Jesus lived during the time of Tiberius Caesar.
2. He lived a virtuous life.
3. He was a wonder-worker.
4. He had a brother named James.
5. He was acclaimed to be the Messiah.
6. He was crucified under Pontius Pilate.
7. He was crucified on the eve of the Jewish Passover.
8. Darkness and an earthquake occurred when he died.
9. His disciples believed he rose from the dead.
10. His disciples were willing to die for their belief.
11. Christianity spread rapidly as far as Rome.
12. His disciples denied the Roman gods and worshiped Jesus as God.((Geisler, Norman. Turek, Frank. I Don’t Have Enough Faith To Be An Atheist, Crossway, 2004. Print.))

Keep in mind the above list is compiled from non-Christians and even sources hostile to Christianity. This is a list void of anyone who believed in Christianity.

I will add as an endnote if we include the number of Christian authors who mention Christ within 150 years of his birth and add the ten non-Christian sources, the total is forty-three references who mention Jesus. Then if we look at the number of Christian and non-Christian sources that mention Tiberius Caesar in the same 150 year period, the total is ten.((Geisler, Norman. Turek, Frank. I Don’t Have Enough Faith To Be An Atheist, Crossway, 2004. Print.))

Christopher Hitchens, author of ‘god is not Great’ says the authors of the New Testament cannot agree on anything of importance. However, you can see from the above list even those who were not Christians and hostile to Christianity agreed on elements of great importance, which are verified by the overwhelming number of copies we have of the New Testament.

The New Testament has documentation above and beyond any other ancient manuscript. Not only in sheer numbers of copies that can be cross-examined for accuracy, but also written within a few years of the events that took place, while other historical documents are written centuries later. The New Testament also has evidence from numerous sources outside of scripture and sources hostile to Christianity. So you can trust the New Testament!
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Can you Trust the New Testament by James W Glazier is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://christianapologetics.blog/you-can-trust-the-new-testament/.

Sources:

  1. Wallace, James Warner. Cold-Case Christianity. Colorado Springs: David C Cook Publishing, 2013. Print. []

You mean you actually believe in the Bible and all that Jesus stuff?

Reading Time: 6 minutes

Richard Dawkins wrote, “Although Jesus probably existed, reputable biblical scholars do not in general regard the New Testament (and obviously not the Old Testament) as reliable record of what actually happened in history, and I shall not consider the Bible further as evidence for any kind of deity.” 1

Marcus Borg posted, “The gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles belong together. For about a century, the conventional wisdom of mainline scholarship has dated Luke and Acts to the late 80s or 90s. But in the last decade, a growing number of scholars have dated them significantly later, in the first decade or two of the second century.” 2

In the New York Times best seller, Christopher Hitchens wrote, “The best argument I know for the highly questionable existence of Jesus is this. His illiterate living disciples left us no record and in any event could not have been ‘Christians,’ since they were never to read those later books in which Christians must affirm belief, and in any case had no idea that anyone would ever found a church on their master’s announcements.”3

The claims that Jesus may not have existed are nothing new. Skeptics and atheists such as Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitches, and others, commonly allude to the poor historical record, the late dating of the New Testament books, and other short comings within scripture that should keep any sensible person from considering the New Testament as any kind of credible or accurate ancient record.

So lets back up for a moment and compare apples to apples.

In 66 AD the Jews revolted against the Romans and destroyed a Roman cohort stationed in Jerusalem. A Roman cohort usually had six centurions, who lead about 80 men each giving a cohort about 480 men total. Not surprisingly, Rome was not too happy about this, so the Roman emperor sent General Vespasian to crush the rebellion. On his way to Jerusalem they parked around a rebel town named Jotapata in the region of Galilee. On the 47th day of that siege a Jewish rebel named Flavius Josephus surrendered and was one of the few survivors of that engagement.

What is significant about Flavius Josephus is he sweet talked his way into the inner circle of the Roman empire, and eventually became a historian for the Roman emperor. That is a long step from hiding out in a cave with his Jewish buddies with a Roman centurion out side, threatening them to give up or die. He had been Jewish, and was one of the rebels that fought against Rome. He was quite familiar with the culture and surrounding area and wrote about the Jewish history, which has survived to this day.

Josephus wrote in Book 18, Chapter 3, Section 3, “No there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day…” 4

Josephus also mentioned James, the brother of Jesus and how he was stoned by the Sanhedrin. Some scholars believe James may have been head of the Jerusalem church and that was enough reason for the Jewish authorities to stone him. Acts 21:17-18

There are several non-Christians sources that mention Jesus within 150 years of His life. If we include Josephus above, there is a total of 10 non-Christian. In the same 150 year period, you will find 9 non-Christian sources that mention the Roman Emperor Tiberius, at the time of Christ. Now add in the Christian sources and we find Christ is documented in 43 sources and the Roman Emperor Tiberius only 10 times. 5

Norman Geisler and Frank Turek pieced together the non-Christian sources and came up with an impressive list. Keep in mind this list is from the non-Christian sources.

1. Jesus lived during the time of Tiberius Caesar.
2. Jesus lived a virtuous life.
3. Jesus was a wonder worker.
4. Jesus had a brother named James.
5. Jesus was acclaimed to be the Messiah.
6. Jesus was crucified under Pontius Pilate.
7. Jesus was crucified on the eve of the Jewish Passover.
8. Darkness and an earth quake occurred when he died.
9. His disciples believed he rose from the dead.
10. His disciples were willing to die for their belief.
11. Christianity spread rapidly as far as Rome.
12. His disciples denied the Roman gods and worshiped Jesus as God. 6

To even suggest, or hint, that Jesus may not have existed is silly when you consider just the sources that would be hostile to Christianity. Then, when those sources confirm the eye-witness testimony of the New Testament you have what seems to an accurate account of the life of Christ and his followers from over 2000 years ago.

When researching this post I came across another blog that pointed out, “There is a fundamental difference between the claims of history and the claims of inspiration. The claims of history are simply speaking to what actually happened; the claims of inspiration speak to the character and ultimate origin of a work (i.e., is God ultimately behind it?). We are capable of studying the historical claims without first having to prove inspiration.” 7

Dating the New Testament letters centuries after the life of Christ is another common attempt of non-believers to discredit scriptures as the author of the Huffington Post alluded to up above. What I find amusing at times is the skeptics lack of explanation to the omission of the 70 AD event throughout scripture. James Wallace put it this way, “We begin with perhaps the most significant Jewish historical event of the first century, the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in AD70. Rome dispatched an army to Jerusalem in response to the Jewish rebellion of AD 66. The Roman army (under the leadership of Titus) ultimately destroyed the temple in 70 just as Jesus predicted in the Gospels, (Matthew 24:1-3)” 8

Here we have a culture that surrounds, and worships within the city of Jerusalem. The center of the Jewish culture, its economy, its religious practices, its traditions, were all housed within the walls of Jerusalem and the temple. The temple was considered to be the worldly dwelling place of God and was of vital importance to the Jews of that day.

When the revolt started in 66 AD, four years later in 70 AD, not only was Jerusalem leveled, but the temple also. To say the Jews defended the city and temple would be an understatement. In the final day when the city walls were breached many rallied and surrounded the temple, but it caught fire. Despite the efforts of the Jews, and some Roman commanders who were ordered to keep the temple intact, it burned to the ground and was destroyed.

The fall of Jerusalem, and the destruction of the temple would have been mentioned by the New Testament authors, but not a single one mentions this monumental event in Jewish history. The omission of this historical fact is just one strong argument that all the New Testament authors penned their letters before the fall of Jerusalem.

Dismissing the Bible viable historical evidence, questioning if Jesus actually lived, and claims of the New Testament written centuries after Christ can all be dismissed after some careful research on the part of any Christian apologist who wants to defend their faith. 1 Peter 3:15

 

Sources:

1. Dawkins, Richard. The God Delusion. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006. Print.
2. Borg, Marcus. “A Chronological New Testament” Huffington Post. Huffingtonpost.com, 31 Aug. 2012. Web. 16 Feb. 2015.
3. Hitchens, Christopher. God is not Great – How Religion Poisons Everything. New York: Hachette Book Group, 2007. Print.
4. Josephus,Flavius. The Antiquities of the Jews. Trans. William Whiston. Blacksburg: Unabridged Books, 2011. Print.
5. Geisler, Norman. Turek, Frank. I Don’t Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist. Wheaton: Crossway, 2004. Print.
6. Ibid.
7. Moyer, Doy, “On Using the Bible to Prove the Bible” La Vista Church of Christ. Church of Christ, 30 Sept. 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2015
8. Wallace, James J. Cold-Case Christianity. Colorado Springs: David C Cook, 2013. Print.

 

 

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You mean you actually believe in the Bible and all that Jesus stuff? by James Glazier is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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